GROWING FRUIT TREES FROM SEEDS


King Apple Seedling Experiment
I planted about 20 seeds from Tompkins County King (King) apple, which is a triploid. All but one of the resulting seedlings were deformed. The one healthy seedling grew well and was vigerous. Unfortunately, I never grew the seedling to fruiting.


A Few Words On The Frequency of Superior Apple Seedlings

I have seen many times where people claim that only 1 in 20,000 apple seedlings are worth saving. This is absolutely not true. The criteria for commercial apples are very strict. But, the back yard gardener or home orchardist is only looking for apples that taste good and don’t get diseases. None of the thousands of heirloom apples are commercially acceptable. There are probably thousands of apple varaties that are rejected by government fruit breeding programs that the home gardener would love to grow. I tasted less than 400 wild apples and found 20 that were worth grafting for further evaluation. 10 were excellent, the other 10 were good and 3 of them were cooking apples. Going from my and others experiences, you should get 2 or 3 excellent apples for every 100 seeds planted.

If you have enough room, go ahead and plant a row of seedlings from your favorite apple. Plant them in a row three feet apart, or plant them in the wilder parts of your property, and the wildlife can enjoy them, even if they don’t turn out to be good enough to graft and plant in your orchard.


Malus fusca, The Oregon Crabapple

Grafting Malus fusca

Most of the scion wood that I collected from these crabapples was very small in diameter, making it difficult to graft. I came up with a method of grafting them that works quite well. Make a cut on the rootstock like you would for T budding. Loosen the bark just enough so that the scion will fit snugly. Make a slanting cut on the scion. On the opposite side of the cut, cut or scrape off just enough bark on the sides of the scion so that the cambiam is exposed. The exposed cambium will fit under the flaps on your T cut. Slide your scion into the T cut, and tape and seal as you would for any other graft. This works for spring or summer grafting.


Growing Seedlings From Other Fruit

It’s ok to dry seeds from peaches, plums, apricots, apples, pears and nuts. I don’t think that citrus seeds should dry out before planting. Persimmon seeds should be put into stratification without drying.

Pears

Pear seeds have the same requirements for stratification as apples which is three months of cold and wet treatment in the refrigerator. You can wrap the seeds in a damp paper towell and put them in a baggie, or you can put them in damp peat moss before refrigeration. You can also plant them outside in the fall and let nature stratisfy them. Pear seedlings take longer to start fruiting than apple seedlings and pear trees grow larger than apples.

My favorite pear is Beure Superfin. There are also many excellent newer large pears.

Asian pears are graft and pollen compatable, although their bloom times do not usually overlap. Sekel pear blooms at the some time as some Asian pears. Asians grow to be 8 to 12 feet tall and will sometimes produce fruit in three years from seed. Asian pears need to be heavily thinned to produce large fruit. Some Asian pears will crack in heavy rainy conditions.

Asian pear cultivars are partially self-fruitful but better crops are set and they have more uniform fruit where two or more cultivars pollenate each other.

All Asian pear cultivars except ‘Shinko’ may develop fireblight. In areas with cold spring seasons, Asian pears will get bacterial canker.

Asian Pears will fruit in 3 or 4 years from seeds.

BEST ASIAN PEARS

Atago – Golden russet, Very little thinning required. Will sweeten in cooler summer locations. Good fireblight resistance.

Hosui – Golden russet, The best-flavored of all the Asian pears!

*Jilin – late October, very large, green, oblong fruit, free of disease symptoms or blemishes. Sweet, hard-crisp, and juicy. Natl. Germplasm Repository – Corvallis

Kikusui – Yellow-green, Superb fresh eating, one of the best. Resistant to fireblight, tender skin, preharvest drop problems. Fruit must be heavily thinned to obtain size.

Kosui – yellow-bronze with russet, Regarded by many as highest quality of Asian pears.

Meigetsu (Clear Moon) – Large, bronze colored, sweet with a touch of pineapple flavor! Only moderately resistant to fireblight

Mishirasu – unattractive brown russet, excellent flavor and firm crisp texture.

Mishirusu – “Excellent and it is the same as the one in Raintree that’s where I got the tree from. By far the best asian pear I ever had and I grow bushels of great tasting ones. ripens in mid September.”

Naju – Golden russet, mid-September. sweet, crisp and juicy.

Nitaka – yellowish brown color, extreme juiciness and high sugar content.

*Okolo – Pyrus ussuriensis. Fruit: diam. 2 1/4 inches; juicy, with delicious flavor. Natl. Germplasm Repository – Corvallis

Olympic (aka Korean Giant, Arirang) (“Sweet Pear”) Korean, one of the best, late ripening varieties.

Raja – Golden-brown, Disease resistant, juicy and a wonderfully rich flavor.

Seigyoku – Smooth yellow skin, Outstanding flavor, very sweet

Shinko – Golden brown russet, Appears to be nearly resistant to fireblight.

Shinsui – Beautiful orange-yellow russet, Super sweet, Moderately susceptible to fire blight.

Yakumo – Best quality, early ripening. Medium size fruit. Yellow, sweet melon-like flavor.

Yoinashi – Golden brown sweet fruit, with an excellent butterscotch flavor. Tolerant to fire blight.


PEACHES

Birds often take sprouting apricots and peaches. Row cover fabrics protect these germinating kernals. Mice and squirrels will also eat your planted seeds.

Peaches fruit from seed in three or four years, so they are rewarding to work with.

Peaches, plums and nectarines are highly susceptible to nematodes in the Deep South, especially in sandy soils. Nemagard or Guardian are the preferred rootstocks as they offer resistance.

There are three Peaches that have exceptional taste: Clayton, Early Crawford and Foster

Clayton – This is an all-around great peach: it is highly disease-resistant yet great-tasting, similar to Early Crawford. It had no scab at all and is very resistand to Bacterial Canker. It is about average size. Highly recommended, will blow the doors off Red Haven.

Early Crawford – Truly excellent. In the mango-like school of Clayton and Foster.

Foster – A truly excellent peach with a rich mango-like flavor, very sweet and much more sour than most peaches. Very low productivity unfortunately. It has a big seam on the fruit which was standard 100 years ago.

Here are a few more peaches with exceptional taste:

Andromeda Peach at Wolfskill (UC Davis) Unbelievable.

Arctic Supreme: Large peach with red-over cream skin; white flesh with great flavor. Considered on of the best.

Baby Crawford – The best-flavored peach, according to California Rare Fruit Growers in the Santa Clara Valley area.

Blazingstar was the most requested. They were very small peaches, but they were so sweet people couldn’t get enough of them.

Carman – WOW! This is an extraordinary heirloom white peach. A nice level of tartness plus a good bunch of flavor.

Carolina Gold – An excellent peach with an orange-y flavor. You need to let them hang good and long to get best flavor. Resistant to BS.

Charlotte – Bears good crops of deliciously sweet, orange-red, semi-freestone fruit. Charlotte also appears to be particularly resistant to bacterial canker. Highly resistant to Peach Leaf Curl.

China Pearl – White fleshed freestone peach. Finer peaches on this earth you will never find outside the NCSU releases. Zones 2 – 8 (1100 c.h.)

Cling Lilleland – A new UC Davis variety that is fabulous.

Elegant Lady – Introduced about 1979. Large, firm, yellow freestone (bright red at pit). Red over yellow skin. High fruit-tasting scores: excellent flavor, balanced sugar & acid. Harvest late July in central California. (700 – 800 c.h.) Self-fruitful.

Gold Dust – Earliest top quality peach. Its juicy, melting texture and sweetness can hardly be beat. Yellow semi-freestone with exceptional flavor. An heirloom variety, it is low in acid and smaller than most peaches. (550 c.h.) Self-fruitful.

J. H. Hale – Old variety, still one of the best. Very large, firm, superb flavor. Ripe August 1st in central Calif. Excellent frost hardiness. (800 c.h.)

Lola Queen – Similar to Carman. Also looks a lot like Carman. Both of these two are late 19th century Texan origin.

Loring – Taste test winner. Superb large yellow freestone. Excellent flavor and texture, low acid. Harvests over 2-3 week period, mid to late July in central CA. Requires little or no thinning. Excellent for home orchard. (750 c.h.) Self-fruitful.

Oldmixon Free Improved – A later and smaller peach tasting very similar to Silver Logan. In other words, an excellent peach.

Rio Oso Gem – Fruit is excellent, highly flavored and right near the very best.

Silver Logan – 1965. Excellent sugar/acid balance. It rots too much. Fortunately Oldmixon Free is nearly as good.

Winblo – Close to Clayton in quality. Very well-balanced and creamy classic peach taste. Freestone with yellow flesh. You need to let them hang good and long to get best flavor. Major Resistance to BS. NC state release. (850 c.h.)

Peach Leaf Curl Resistant Varieties

Autumn Rose: succumbed to peach leaf curl.

Avalon Pride – Minor leaf curl, self-fertile, very sweet and very good tasting peach.

California curlfree –

Charlotte – minor leaf curl, white flesh. Ripens Late Aug. The blossoms are diminutive and appear in early spring, so pollination is a challenge.

Curlfree Dwarf –

Five Star Curlless –

Frost – no leaf curl, Very nice peach. A really great choice.

Indian Blood Free: minor leaf curl, when ripe bursts with flavors of blackberry, plum and peach.

Kreibich Nectarine: very minor leaf curl, the fruit is highly susceptible to splitting after being rained upon.

Landt – Discovered by Rick Landt, this unique variety is prized for its disease resistance and large, delicious fruit. Growing and producing fruit for many years in Ashland, Oregon, Landt bears good crops of attractive, orange-yellow peaches with sweet and flavorful, deep-orange flesh.

Rick Landt – “Very late season peach ripens in mid to late September for us here in northern California. Sweet and delicious, it was the standout from a trial of seedlings from an old abandoned, yet healthy peach tree.” Rolling River Nursery.

Mary Jane – A red skinned, yellow fleshed peach with showy pink flowers and very good flavor, It sets fruit even in frosty springs. It ripens mid August. It is good for fresh eating, drying, canning or freezing, A chance seedling selected by Louie Strahl in Steilacoom, WA.

Nanaimo – From Canada, freestone with sweet and tasty, orange flesh. Proving itself a reliable producer in the PNW.

Oregon Curl Free – very minor curl, peaches small, taste sweet with tart edge. One of the best producing peaches.

Pacific Pride: A selected seedling of Kreibich Nectarine, white flesh.

Rosey Dawn – Resistance to leaf curl. Washington breeding program

Q-18: Minor leaf curl, white flesh, a great producer of small sweet white peaches. Showy pink blossoms.

Strahl – “Yellow fleshed and streaked with red inside. Our most reliably productive, and high quality fruiting curl resistant variety. mid-season” Rolling River Nursery

ars.usda has two un-named leaf curl resistant cultivars-budwood.

ars.usda also has Gold Drop, Rogany Goy and Tuscan Cling/Tuskena with leaf curl resistance.

ars.usda.gov – Davis, California, repository for Prunus.


Peaches Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Spot

Biscoe – The trees are highly resistant to bacterial spot and the flower buds are tolerant of low winter temperatures.

Bounty – Recommended as a replacement for Loring, Bounty is a very large, firm freestone peach of exceptional quality and flavor. The winter hardiness and red color exceed that of Loring. Resistance to bacterial leaf spot is good. Ripens mid-late August. (800 c.h.)

Candor -20 – Excellent resistance to BS – Small, freestone, less color and softer than later-ripening cultivars.

Carolina Gold – almost pristine leaves with no sprays.

Challenger – has met the challenge of a super peach that is disease-resistant, old hardy buds and has consistent cropping. Ripens mid to late July. Zones 5-7. (950 c.h.)

Champion – Bacterial leaf spot resistant.

Charlotte – One of our favorite, disease-resistant varieties, Charlotte bears good crops of deliciously sweet, orange-red, semi-freestone fruit. Charlotte also appears to be particularly resistant to bacterial canker.

Clayton – very high resistance to bacterial spot

Comanche – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Contender – Non-browning. Late blooming; considerable resistance to bacterial spot.

Contender, +18 – Excellent resistance to BS – Medium-size, freestone, nonbrowning.

Cresthaven – Resistant

Cultivar – This particular peach tree has a high resistance to bacterial leaf spot.

Derby – clingstone, very high resistance to bacterial spot, Clingstone

Earliglo – Resistant

Ellerbe – highly resistant to bacterial spot

Emeraude, +5 – Good resistance to BS. Large, white flesh, low acid, similar cold hardiness as SilverGem.

Emory – highly resistant to bacterial spot

Encore – The fruit is large, firm and has a high tolerance to bacterial leaf spot.

Garnet Beauty – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Glowingstar – Trees are winter hardy, productive, and resistant to bacterial spot.

Gold – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Golden Jubilee. 1926. medium to large freestone. excellent winter hardiness. The best early peach. middle to late August. It requires heavier pruning than any other fruit trees to maintain size. seems to resist bacterial spot better than most. the tree has stayed healthy all these years.

Hamlet – highly resistant to bacterial spot

Harbelle, Resistant

Harbinger, Resistant

Harbrite – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Harken – Ripening in July around the same time as Redhaven, Harken grows well as both a winter hardy and disease resistant peach tree.

Harrow Beauty – Excellent Bacterial leaf spot resistance

Harrow Diamond – Considerable resistanceto bacterial spot, brown rot and perennial canker.

Jerseydawn – Resistant

Late Sunhaven – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Loring – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Madison – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Norman – highly resistant to bacterial spot, showy flowers

Ouchita – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Pekin – very high resistance to bacterial spot

PF1 – Excellent Bacterial leaf spot resistance

PF12A – Excellent Bacterial leaf spot resistance

PF24-007 – Excellent Bacterial leaf spot resistance

PF27A – Excellent Bacterial leaf spot resistance

PF 24C Cold Hardy – this peach is very large, firm, highly colored, bacterial spot resistant, and has excellent, rich flavor.

PF 8 Ball – It is a large peach for this early, excellent flavor, bac spot resistant and hangs well on the tree. late bloomer.

PF 19-007 – bacterial spot resistant, BROWN ROT RESISTANT and a truly freestone peach. It also blooms late.

Ranger – Resistant

Raritan Rose – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Redhaven – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Redskin – Very high quality. Considerable tolerance of bacterial spot.

Redstar – Good resistance to BS. Large, semifreestone, 80 percent red blush.

Risingstar® medium vigor, hardy and productive with good resistance to bacterial spot and peach canker.

Roza –

Rubired – very high resistance to bacterial spot

Starfire, +1 – Excellent resistance to BS. Medium-size, brilliant red, freestone, requires several harvests.

Sunhaven – Bacterial leaf spot resistant

Tango – almost pristine leaves with no sprays

Winblo – almost pristine leaves with no sprays. Major Resistance to BS

Winblo – moderately resistant to bacterial spot?

Wynot – highly resistant to bacterial spot

The following varieties are somewhat resistant to Bacterial Leaf Spot:
Belle of Georgia,
Biscoe,
Candor,
Comanche,
Garnet Beauty,
Harbrite,
Harken,
Late Sunhaven,
Loring, Madison,
Norman,
Raritan Rose,
Redhaven,
Redskin
Sunhaven.


Brown Rot Resistant Peaches

Carmen

Delicious – sweet, good flavored medium-large red-skinned with gold flesh freestone peach from Canada. It is one of the most reliable for the rainy climates of the pacific northwest, consistently producing heay crops. Excellent brown rot resistance allowing it to set fruit even during wet and rainy spring weather. (800 c.h.)

Elberta

Encore

Harcrest is a very good quality later peach that seems brown rot resistant.

Harrow Diamond – Considerable resistanceto bacterial spot, brown rot and perennial canker.

Harson – AnotAbove average disease resistance, according to the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Along with bacterial leaf spot and brown rot, it has high resistance to Leucostoma canker diseases. A productive tree, Harson bears attractive medium to large fruit.

Jefferson

La Feliciana from LSU – It was bred for resistance to fungus and rots and such and is really good.

Old Mixon Free

Orange Cling

PF-15A

PF 19-007 –

PF 24C

PF 35 Fat Lady –

PF 8 Ball –

Rariton Rose – one of the best white peaches for the home orchard. No other peach can be more beautiful on the tree with so little attention to brown rot and scab.

Red Bird

Roza – Beautiful, large, round, red- blushed freestone peach has excellent flavor and firm, juicy yellow flesh. Highly brown rot resistant, it sets a good crop even in wet springs. One of our favorite and most reliable peaches.

Ruston Red

Sunbeam

White County, it gets bac. spot pretty bad.

White River


Hardy Peaches

Blushingstar – (description taken from the Stellar peach website) Blushingstar is a high quality white fleshed peach that ships and stores well. Ripens 20 days after Redhaven. Flavor is distinctive— very sweet, slightly acidic, very aromatic. Flesh white tinged with pink and does not brown, completely freestone. Hardy and open growing with some resistance to bacterial spot. A white peach that makes converts of all who try it.

Canadian Harmony – Late-blooming, vigorous tree. Cold hardiness comparable to Redhaven. Medium to large, firm, yellow freestone with red near the pit. Skin almost entirely blushed red.

Challenger peach trees produce a yellow fleshed freestone fruit that requires 950 chilling hours and ripens 24 days before Elberta. Zones 2-7

Clayton – supposed to have some resistance against PLC and bac. spot, not sold commercially.

Contender – This is a large round peach with 70% red blush on a yellow background. It has a firm yellow flesh that is resistant to browning. This is a great tasting peach. Recommended for all home orchards because it crops well and is very dependable. Contender ripens from July to August, requires 1050 chilling hours. Zones 2-7 moderately resistant to bacterial spot.

Contender – hardy, This self pollinating tree produces sweet extra-juicy fruit that is an absolute delight for fresh eating, canning, baking or freezing. Trees grow to only 12-15′ tall. Fruit ripens mid to late August.

Fingerlake Super Hardy –

Gold Dust does well for me and is very early. It is an early peach that tastes like a late peach.

Golden Jubilee – Favorite cold country peach for canning and fresh-eating. Derived from Elberta, ripens three weeks earlier (between Redhaven and July Elberta). Medium-sized, oblong, yellow freestone (red at pit). Skin one-third blushed with mottled red. 800 hours. Self-fruitful.

Halehaven. Used fresh and for freezing. From Ontario, Canada. Introduced in 1968. 1,000 hours. Self-fruitful.

Harken – From Canada, a sibling of Canadian Harmony peach. Red-skinned yellow freestone ripens early mid-season, a few days after Redhaven . Sweet, flavorful, mid-sized fruit, non-browning flesh. One of the highest-rated peaches for Western Washington. Dessert/cooking/freezing. 800 hours. Self-fruitful

Harrow Beauty –

Intrepid – very hardy. This fruit is yellow fleshed freestone that requires 1000 chilling hours and ripens 17 days before Elberta. Zones 2-7

Madison – hardy

McKay Peach – very hardy, Borderline Zone 4-5. Development of McKay Nursery, Watertown, WI, it has survived many hard winters. More hardy than most, producing large firm fruit of excellent quality. Ripens early to mid August.

PF24C. It is a much firmer peach and extremely good flavor.

PF 24C Cold Hardy – This is a very unique peach variety that has it all. Usually with a kind that is very spring and winter hardy like this one, something else is sacrificed, such as size, firmness, etc. But this peach is very large, firm, highly colored, bacterial spot resistant, and has excellent, rich flavor. The fruit has much better size (2-3/4inch up ) and quality than other varieties thought to be hardy such as Reliance and Madison.

PF 35 Fat Lady – A classy, large peach (2-3/4 and 3 inches). It is highly colored for the very late season. It is particularly hardy coming through with a good crop regularly. Very freestone; bacterial spot resistant. It has better fruit color, flavor and a stronger tree than the older late varieties Fayette and Encore. I have held this variety in the cooler for three weeks after harvest for extended late sales several times now and the fruit always remains very juicy and tasty. I believe this peach is a real winner for the very late season.

PF 8 Ball – This early very FREESTONE peach variety ripens 10 days before Redhaven. It is a large peach for this early, it has high color, great texture and excellent flavor, bac spot resistant and hangs well on the tree. PF 8 Ball is a late bloomer.

PF 19-007 – (Description courtesy Paul Friday) One of my very favorite peach varieties. This peach variety ripens 17 days after Redhaven and where two industry standards PF 17 and PF 23 overlap. In my opinion it has even better fruit quality than either of them. It has beautiful, large (mostly 3″) highly colored firm fruit and is bacterial spot resistant, BROWN ROT RESISTANT and a truly freestone peach. It is very prolific. In the 2002 season, when most varieties in Michigan froze from a spring frost, this variety had a full crop in a very low place. PF 19-007 also blooms late. Fruit has been exceptional in every way every year since.

Redhaven is a Michigan peach, and should have the bud hardiness you require, Zone 5-8. One of the finest early peaches, ripening in early August. Medium sized, delicious flavor, color is red with yellow flesh. Hardy, heavy producer.

Reliance – Late blooming. Very cold hardy/frost hardy. Sweet, flavorful yellow freestone. Best choice for climates having severe cold in winter and spring. Harvest 2-3 weeks before Elberta. Showy bloom. 1000 hours. Self-fruitful.

Reliance – Most winter-hardy peach we know. Bred in New Hampshire; released in 1964. Medium size fruit; not attractive — dull red finish. Freestone. Very hardy in bud, stem tissue, and blossoms. Flavor doesn’t approach that of less hardy varieties, but it’s still the choice for difficult areas.

Trugold – Gurneys says it blooms later then Contender

Veteran is a tasty peach with a thick fuzzy skin. It is great for canning because the skins pop off easily. It was bred for cold-hardiness in Canada. It has a particularly late bloom as well which is good for avoiding frost damage.

Veteran – One of the most reliable peaches for cold climates: winter hardy and late-blooming. Yellow to yellow-orange skin. Yellow flesh is freestone when fully ripe, and richly flavored. Harvest one week before Elberta. 900 hours. Self-fruitful.

Winblo – freestone with yellow flesh. It requires 850 chilling hours and ripens 15 days before Elberta. Zones 7-8

Wisconsin Balmer – hardy


Late Blooming Peaches

PF 8 Ball – It is a large peach for this early, excellent flavor, bac spot resistant and hangs well on the tree. late bloomer.

PF 19-007 – bacterial spot resistant, BROWN ROT RESISTANT and a truly freestone peach. It also blooms late.

Canadian Harmony – Late-blooming, vigorous tree. Cold hardiness comparable to Redhaven. Medium to large, firm, yellow freestone with red near the pit. Skin almost entirely blushed red.

Reliance – Late blooming. Very cold hardy/frost hardy. Sweet, flavorful yellow freestone. Best choice for climates having severe cold in winter and spring. Very hardy in bud, stem tissue, and blossoms. Flavor doesn’t approach that of less hardy varieties, but it’s still the choice for difficult areas. Harvest 2-3 weeks before Elberta. Showy bloom. 1000 hours. Self-fruitful.

Veteran is a tasty peach with a thick fuzzy skin. It is great for canning because the skins pop off easily. It was bred for cold-hardiness in Canada. It has a particularly late bloom as well which is good for avoiding frost damage.

Veteran – One of the most reliable peaches for cold climates: winter hardy and late-blooming. Yellow to yellow-orange skin. Yellow flesh is freestone when fully ripe, and richly flavored. Harvest one week before Elberta. 900 hours. Self-fruitful.


White Peaches

Artic Gem – Zone 5-9. Large, yellow fruit with white flesh, sweet and juicy. A freestone with delightful aroma and flavor. Stores good for fresh eating, drying, baking, freezing and jams. An excellent pollinator.

Babcock – Long-time favorite white-fleshed freestone. Sweet, juicy and aromatic, low in acid. Very high-scoring in taste tests. Widely adapted: (low chill requirement, yet not early blooming). (250-300 c.h.) Self-fruitful and ripens early prone to Brown Rot and PLC.

Belle of Georgia – It is very hardy. It is also a month or so later than Redhaven, and is resistant to bacterial spot and an easy grower. Highly susceptibe to brown rot. Low quality peach. Drops when it is ripe. (850 c.h.)

Blushingstar – A white peach that makes converts of all who try it. Flavor is distinctive; very sweet, slightly acidic, very aromatic. Hardy and open growing with some resistance to bacterial spot.

Carolina Belle – Not all that great. (750 c.h.)

Champion White –

China Pearl – Finer peaches on this earth you will never find outside these NCSU releases. Zones 2 – 8 (1100 c.h.)

Indian Free – Large, firm freestone with crimson and cream-colored flesh. Tart until fully ripe, then highly aromatic with a rich, distinctive flavor. Highly resistant to peach leaf curl. Late season. 700 hours. Another peach needed to pollenize.

Lord Napier – An old style juicy white nectarine with excellent flavor. It has also done pretty well against the rots and peach scab and the size is decent.

Nectar (Original Nectar) – This peach has great taste, aroma, and texture with a white freestone flesh. It is a medium cream to pale green colored fruit with dark pink blush. This is the white fleshed peach for the home orchard. Nectar ripens late June to early July. Zones 2-7. 1935. (800 c.h.) Self-fruitful.

Oldmixon Free – Incredible, its a great peach. This is the standard for a late white-fleshed peach. Very reliable as well. An easy tree with few problems.

Polly – Developed in Iowa in the 1920s. Most productive peach. Hardy to -20ºF. Reliable crops of tasty, sweet, medium-sized, white-fleshed fruit. Crimson-blushed white skin. (1,000 c.h.) Self-fruitful.

Q-1-8 – Peach leaf curl resistant, semi-freestone fruit is sweet and juicy like Babcock, with a more sprightly flavor. (7-800 c.h.) Self-fruitful.

Rariton Rose – one of the best white peaches for the home orchard. No other peach can be more beautiful on the tree with so little attention to brown rot and scab.

Redrose – A hybrid of ‘J.H. Hale’ x ‘Delicious’, introduced in 1940 by the New Jersey Experiment Station. Harvest begins July 31 to Aug. 7. The attractive fruit has 50 to 80% dark pinkish red color over a pink background and it is slightly aromatic. The flesh is moderately soft and somewhat acid, freestone and there is some red pigment in the flesh. Flavor is fair to good. The tree is fairly resistant to bacterial spot.

Scarlet Pearl- An early white peach from Rutgers breeding program. It has a bursting tangy smooth white peach taste, excellent.

Snow Beauty – Attractive red skin. One of the all time highest scoring varieties in blind fruit tastings at Dave Wilson Nursery. Low acid, high sugar, large, very firm. (750-850 c.h.) Self-fruitful, freestone, midseason harvest.

Snow Giant – Creamy white skin with attractive red blush. Very large, sweet, low-acid, 6-700 hours. Self-fruitful.

Snow King – Large, red-skinned, very firm, 800 hours. Self-fruitful.

Strawberry Free: medium fruit with light, pink-blushed skin; firm, white flesh with excellent flavor; freestone from California. Early harvest.

Sugar Lady – Sweet, mild flavor, no tartness, very firm. Beautiful dark red skin. (700 c.h.) Self-fruitful.

Sugar May – Very juicy and sweet with fine flavor. High fruit-tasting scores. Medium to large with red skin. Early season peach. (600 – 700 c.h.) Self-fruitful.

Summer Pearl – The pedigree is complex and contains ‘White Hale’, ‘Flaming Gold’, and ‘Candoka’. Introduced in 1979 by the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, and Stark Brothers’ Nursery. The Harvest season begins Aug. 12 to Aug. 20. The attractive fruit has 40 to 70% of the surface colored red over a greenish/white background. Average fruit diameter is about 2.75 inches. The fairly firm white flesh contains some red pigment. Flavor is good to excellent.

Tropic Snow: Medium size peach with red skin; white flesh has excellent flavor; freestone. Early harvest.

White Cloud – White fleshed clingstone peach that ripens 33 days before Elberta. Zones 2-7 (950 c.h.)

White County – Large attractive red-skinned freestone peaches with aromatic white flesh and ripens 14 days before Elberta. The firm fruit have a melting smooth texture with an exceptional sweet flavor. Shows resistance to bacterial leaf spot and is highly productive. (950 c.h.)

White Diamond – A white freestone peach that ripens 2 days after Elberta. Zones 2-7 (850 c.h.)

White Hale – (750 c.h.)

White Lady – low acid, high sugar, Red-skinned, medium to large, very firm, freestone. (800 c.h.) Self-fruitful. Highly susceptible to BS

White River is freestone peach with white flesh and ripens 8 days before Elberta. Zones 2-7 (950 c.h.)

White Rock – A clingstone with white flesh. Ripens 33 days before Elberta. Zones 2-7. (950 c.h.)

Yukon King – Birds and bugs loved this one to death. Extremely firm. It gets horrible brown rot.


Plums

Wild Plums

You need to spot them out in the Spring when they are blooming. Go back when they are fruiting and look for individual plants with better tasting fruit, larger fruit, or desireable tree charcteristics. Collect seeds in the fall and stratisfy them in damp peat moss for three months, Or you can plant them outside in the fall. Save some seedlings for further evaluation and graft the best wild plants you have found to some of your seedlings, or graft them to a commercial rootstock if you want to prevent suckering.

There is rich genetic diversity found in wild plums. There used to be many named selections. They bear fruit in 4-6 years from seed. Graft and pollen compatable with European plums and other wild plum species.

Peaches, plums and nectarines are highly susceptible to nematodes in the Deep South, especially in sandy soils. Nemagard or Guardian are the preferred rootstocks as they offer resistance.

Good rootstocks for plums are Myrobalan and Myro 29C; if your soil conditions and climate permit; Marianna 2624; and the St Julian A clones.

Prunus americana: American Plum. Native to the eastern two-thirds of central North America. small, single trunk tree or multi-stemmed shrub. The plums can be eaten raw, but the quality is somewhat poor. Improved selections, var. Lantana, var. Geraldine.

Prunus angustifolia: Chickasaw Plum and Sandhill Plum or Sand Plum. The Sandhill Plum differs from the Chickasaw Plum by having large fruit size, and a dwarfed appearance. The Sandhill Plum is the wild plum most commonly used for human consumption.

Prunus maritima: Beach Plum. 4 to 10 feet tall. Plants are often quite thorny. Fruit is quite acid with a crisp, tart, juicy flesh. Improved Selections: Flava, Grant, and others. Hardiness -30 °F.

Prunus nigra: Canada Plum, does not sucker and makes a small tree or shrub with an open crown. Height to 15 ft with equal width. Hardiness -40 °F. Improved selection: Bounty Plum

P. munsoniana: Munson Plum

Prunus munsoniana ‘Wild Goose’ The story about this tree comes from a hunter who found the seed in the stomach of a goose and planted it. Since then many seedlings from this tree were distributed under the name ‘wild goose’. One of the best species types for producing good quality fruiting seedlings. Plant two for pollination. 15 feet tall. Hardiness -25 °F.

Sources: Oikos Tree Crops, Geraldine from Edible Landscaping, Gutherie Chickasaw plum from Just Fruits and Exotics, Sandhill plum seeds from Riverside Sand Plums.


Apricots

Sweetest Apricots

Afghanistan Apricot – White flesh. It is more meaty than Canadian White Blenheim with a more delicate-suger flavor as opposed to honeyed. Only minor scab, the fruits look very nice. Its looking like a real winner.

Ambrosia Apricot.

Autumn Glo Apricot. Tremendous flavor. Highest scoring apricot for taste. Ripens late season. Needs long, warm, late summers. 500 hours or less. Self-fruitful.

Black Velvet Apricot. One of the best, sweetest stone fruits I’ve tasted this season. Grown by Kingsburg Orchards in Kingsburg, Calif.

Briana Apricot. A true to type seed grown apricot originating from northern Russia. Fruit sizes are from 1 to 1-1/2 inches which are produced in dense clusters on short spurs along the branches. Small fruited but big in flavor, Briana has the richest taste of any apricot we have ever grown. Little disease or insect problems occur. Hardiness -30 °F.

Canadian White Blenheim Apricot. Taste test winner! One of the all-time top-scoring apricots in Dave Wilson Nursery blind taste tests. Quite acidic and flavorful. Syrupy sweet white flesh with firm texture. Partly self-fruitful. Late flowering. 500 to 700 hours.

CandyCot Apricot. White flesh. Very heavy fruit set.

Earli-Autumn Apricot. Wonderfully flavored. Late ripening. Needs long, warm, late summers. Self-fruitful. 500 hours or less.

Early Blush Apricot. It’s tasty and extremely early. Very late blooming.

Golden Sweet Apricot. Small fruit, and the sweetest apricot. Self-Fertile but planting two varieties is recommended for a better crop. Disease-resistant.

Goldensweet Apricot. It was classic apricot flavor, but as sweet as the sweetest peach. I have tracked it down to Burchell’s, and sadly they only sell commercially to farmers, not even to nurseries.

Harcot Apricot. One of the best tasting. Medium to large fruit. The taste of Harcot is like a sweet yellow nectarine with very mild acid, truly outstanding. Resists brown rot and perennial canker. Late bloom, 700 hours.

Harglow Apricot. The firm sweet, flavorful fruit is medium to large. Late blooming, early ripening, self-fertile. It shows some resistance to brown rot and canker. Frost hardy late bloom. 700 hours.

Hargrande Apricot. As good as or better tasting than Harcot. Extremely hardy and resistant to brown rot, bacterial spot, perennial canker, and peach leaf curl. Partially self-pollinating. The best performer year after year. The size is outstanding, and the trees tend to live for quite a while.

Harogem Apricot. The tree is consistently productive, cold hardy, and resistant to perennial canker and brown rot.

Hemskerk Apricot. Rather large, round, flattened on the sides. Skin orange, reddish next the sun. Suture distinct, higher on one side than the other. Flesh bright orange, tender, rich, and juicy, separating from the stone. This very much resembles, and, according to some, equals, the Moorpark. The tree is certainly hardier than that variety. Ripens end of July and beginning of August.

Kaisha Apricot. Medium sized, roundish, marked with a suture. Skin pale-lemon coloured on the shaded side, and tinged and mottled with red next the sun. Flesh transparent, separating freely from the stone, clear pale yellow, tender, and very juicy, sugary, and richly flavoured. Kernel sweet. Ripens middle of August.

Moorpark Apricot. Almost as large as a peach. Ripens from early July to late August. Self fertile. 600 hours.

Musch Musch Apricot (D’Alexandrie). Small and almost round. Deep yellow skin; orange red next the sun. Flesh yellow, remarkably transparent, tender, melting, and the sweetest of all apricots.

Newcastle Apricot. Out of this world! Early ripening.

Nicole Apricot. Possiblt the best in taste after Robada. Very sweet, highly flavored apricot with low acidity. Smaller fruit than other apricots but, packed with flavor. Not self fertile. Use Robada as a pollinator.

Orange Knockout Apricot.

Orangered Apricot. This is one of the sweeter apricots. Has a higher chill requirement than most apricots.

Robada Apricot. Pretty big when it comes to apricot standards. They are the favorite of many people. They are also the most bitter. Very Sweet.

Royal Rosa Apricot. Extremely vigorous-more disease tolerant than other apricots. Bears young and heavy. Very early harvest. 500 hours

Sugar Pearls Apricot. White flesh.

Sugar Sweet Apricot.

Sulphany Apricot. White Fleshed. Very hardy and reported to have a fine flavor like Riesling wine. Late blooming. It is self-fertile. Zone 3-7

Sweet Juillet Apricot.

Tomcot Apricot. 1970. Huge orange fruits are the first apricots to ripen each season. Partly self-fruitful. Very consistent and productive, but it isn’t the best choice for the wet west of the Cascades growers. 500 hours or less.

Tardirouge™ Apricot. Very good quality taste. A great pollenizer for Orangered. Self-fertile.

White Blenheim Apricot. Partly self-fruitful: biggest crops if cross-pollenized. 500 to 700 hours.

White Masculine Apricot (Blanche). Small and round. Skin is pale yellow, tinged with brownish red, next the sun, and dull white in the shade. The skin is covered with a fine white down. Fine and delicate, juicy, sugary, and excellent. Ripe the end of July.

Zard Apricot. Central Asian cultivar. Exceptionally late blooming, and it tastes fantastic to boot. It typically blooms about 7 to 10 days later than the latest European-type apricots. Unfortunately it also is unproductive, soft, with chewy skin, prone to rot, and the skin gets cat facing/scarring on it most years. Zard is reported to be more tolerant of frost and have a higher heat requirement than other apricots.


Late Blooming Apricots

Alfred Apricot. Late blooming.

Autumn Royal Apricot. Late blooming.

Brookcot Apricot. Late blooming.

Debbie’s Gold Apricot. Late blooming.

Flavourcot Apricot. Claimed to be late flowering.

Goldcot Apricot. Late blooming.

Harcot Apricot. One of the best tasting. Medium to large fruit. The taste of Harcot is like a sweet yellow nectarine with very mild acid, truly outstanding. Resists brown rot and perennial canker. Frost hardy late bloom. 700 hours.

Harglow Apricot. The firm sweet, flavorful fruit is medium to large. Late blooming, early ripening, self-fertile. It shows some resistance to brown rot and canker. Frost hardy late bloom. 700 hours.

Hargrand Apricot. As good as or better tasting than Harcot. Extremely hardy and resistant to brown rot, bacterial spot, perennial canker, and peach leaf curl. Partially self-pollinating. The best performer year after year. The size is outstanding, and the trees tend to live for quite a while.

Harlayne Apricot. Not as good tasting as Harglow. Blooms late. Ripens late.

Harogem Apricot. The tree is consistently productive, cold hardy, and resistant to perennial canker and brown rot.

Henderson Apricot. Late blooming.

Hungarian Rose Apricot. Late blooming.

Hunza – Very sweet, small fruit, very late blooming tree, but is not recomended because of disease problems.

Jerseycot Apricot. It was the most consistently productive apricot selection in the breeders collection. Flavor is not great. Fruit soften quickly and drop fast.

John Bonn Small Apricot. A selection of the Door County Apricot from Wisconsin. This strain is cold hardy, self-fertile, and quite inbred.

Kazakh Apricot. Late blooming.

Manchurian Apricot. Late blooming.

Montrose Apricot. Both self-fertile and late blooming with brown rot and canker resistance. Sweet and flavorful apricots that are semi-freestone. Sweet kernal. Late summer ripening. Hardy. About the most reliable in the PNW.

Moongold Apricot. Very hardy. Blooms in late April.

Orangered Apricot. Has a higher chill requirement than most apricots.

Perfection Apricot. A late blooming apricot tree with a low winter chill requirement.

Pioneer Chinese Apricot. This late-blooming variety is especially well-adapted to cooler climates and higher elevations. Golden-yellow fruits, ripening in late summer, have a reddish blush, and are sweet, firm and juicy. The pit is also edible.

Precious Apricot. Late blooming.

Puget Gold Apricot – Officially named and introduced by Washington State University (WSU). It sets and sizes fruit in cool frosty spring weather where all other varieties fail. The prolific bearing tree produces large elongated fruit. The tree blooms in early March and the fruit ripens in early August. A natural semi-dwarf, the tree can easily be maintained at 15′ height and spacing. It’s self-fertile.

Scout Apricot. Developed in Morden, Manitoba in 1937. Blooms in early May, when the danger of a late frost is considerably lower. It is self-fertile, but produces more fruit with a pollinator. Hardy to -40°F.

Sugar Pearls Apricot. White flesh. A new US variety being marketed by Gurney and Henry Fields. It is later blooming than all other varieties. It endures mid-winter thaws and spring freezes quite well.

Sungold Apricot. Blooms in late April and requires another variety, such as ‘Moongold’, as a pollinator. very hardy.

Sulphany Apricot. White Fleshed. Very hardy and reported to have a fine flavor like Riesling wine. Late blooming. Self-fertile. Zone 3-7

Tardirouge Apricot. Late blooming.

Tilton Apricot. Late blooming. Self-pollinating and a great pollinator for other varieties.

Tlor-Tsiran apricot. (Prunus dasycarpa) “This is a selection of an unusual naturally occurring hybrid of apricot, P. armeniaca and myroblan plum, P. cerasifera from central Asia. We tasted it in Russia at the Krymsk Station near the Caucasus mountain range and enjoyed the flavor. The skin of the delicious, oval fruit is fuzzy like an apricot but is a dark purple. The tree is self-fertile, somewhat brown rot resistant and very winter hardy. The leaves are smaller and narrower, more like its plum parent. The flesh is a pretty marbled red and yellow.”

Westcot Apricot. A very hardy apricot that does best in cooler climates. The flesh is juicy, sweet and freestone. Ripens in mid-season. self-fertile. Zone 2-6

Westley Apricot. This self fertile apricot from Northern California is excellent eaten fresh and particularly prized dried. The medium to large fruit has orange flesh and good flavor. It blooms and ripens in the late season. It has looked good in trials at the WSU Mt. Vernon station in Western Washington.

Zard Apricot. Central Asian cultivar. Exceptionally late blooming, and it tastes fantastic to boot. It typically blooms about 7 to 10 days later than the latest European-type apricots. Unfortunately it also is unproductive, soft, with chewy skin, prone to rot, and the skin gets cat facing/scarring on it most years. Zard is reported to be more tolerant of frost and have a higher heat requirement than other apricots.

Zimostoikii Apricot. Late blooming.

Notes:

Velvaglo and Goldcot are resistant to brown rot.

Yakimene Apricot. a very large white apricot which is very easy to grow in terms of disease resistance, firmess, etc. The flavor is a mild sweet melon-like flavor, quite nice. Much larger than Tomcot and all of my other white apricots are much smaller. This is only my second white apricot which I would call growable in my climate; the other one is Afghanistan. I also have several other white cots; none of them are being very productive, another big problem I have had with the white cots. The Yakimene and Afghanistan look to be at least “OK” on the productivity side.

Moniqui. It is not quite as tasty as the very best (Zard and Canadian White Blenheim), and its not as productive as most of the common commercial apricots today, but it is an excellent flavored fruit that is looking to be very reliable. I have had big problems with splitting, rotting, and other skin disorders on white apricots, but the Moniqui are looking nearly clean — only a touch of peach scab.


Nuts

Black Walnuts, Persian Walnuts, Pecans, Hicans, Shagbark and Shellbark Hickories, Butternuts, Baurtnuts, Heartnuts, Chestnuts, Beechnuts, Filberts and Chinquapin

Beechnuts, and chinquapins, have little shelf life, and need immediate planting upon harvest to germinate as is necessary in the fall. White oaks also germinate in the fall, but can dry somewhat with little harm done.

Birds often take sprouting pines, pecans, hickories and walnuts. Row cover fabrics protect these germinating nuts. Mice and squirrels will also eat your planted seeds.

Germination of walnuts requires fall planting, or moist stratification through winter.

Elmer Myers, Clermont and Kwikrop Black Walnuts require little training to produce a single leader and sound branching Tree. Elmer Myers has high quality nuts.
Emma K Black Walnuts need some training to produce a single leader Tree. Large mild kernels. Emma K nuts have the thinnest shells.
Elmer Myers and Emma K have the most ornamental foliage.

Pine Nuts

Korean Stone Pine, Pinion Pine, Western White Pine, Swiss Stone Pine and Siberian Stone Pine

Nut pines mature cones in two years, releasing cones every year because they start new cones every year, which they hold for two years. All like acid soil.

Stone pines have to be cracked like hazel nuts.

Seed for planting has to be removed from the cones and stratified in damp peat moss at 40°F for three months. To break apart cones, chill them to 0°F, and while cold, hammer them apart. Alcohol or turpentine will clean up pitch.

Pinions are easier to collect than the stone, or the too small western white pines. Their cones will shake off in late September. Don’t delay gathering, or the pinion cones will open, and the seed will scatter.

Grafting pines can be more convenient than growing seed. Scots or Austrian pine stock is usually handy. Scions are gathered in March as the longest tips of branches in full sun light. Dip cut ends in wax. Storage is by double bagging in plastic bread wrappers with moist paper towels in each bag.


Avacado

Avacado seed will need immediate planting. One way to speed germination is to remove the parchment like seed coat and slice a thin layer from both the top and the bottom of the seed before planting. Plant the seed in soil and set the seed with its base (the wider portion) down.


Strawberries, Blackberries and Raspberries

Blackberry and Raspberry seeds: Place damp peat moss in a sandwich bag and put seeds in the peat moss. Close this and put it in your refrigerator for 3 to 5 months. The temperature must be between 33 to 35 degrees F to stratify the seeds. The seeds should start to open up in the cold.

Strawberry seeds: Dry the seeds. The seeds must be allowed to dry thoroughly before being stored. Keep the seeds in labeled envelopes in a cool, dry place until you’re ready to plant them. Sow the seeds. Sprinkle the seeds on the surface of the soil, and then cover with a fine layer of the soil mix.

Seeds take up to a month to germinate and will usually crop the following year. An unusual varietiey that isn’t available as plants is ‘Florian’; which has pink flowers and produces fruit both on the parent plant and the runners, making it ideal for a hanging basket.


Blueberries

Method 1. Freeze the blueberries in the freezer for 90 days. Thaw the berries and mash them with a pedestal. Place the contents into a quart jar. Add ¾ cup water and seal the jar with a lid. Shake the jars for 2 to 3 minutes. Let the mixture stand for 5 minutes. The seeds will sink to the bottom and the pulp will float in the water. Slowly pour off the pulpy water and then add more fresh water. Repeat the process of shaking the jar and pouring off the pulp until only the blueberry seeds are left.

Method 2. Place ¾ cup of frozen blueberries into a kitchen blender and fill the blender ¾ full of water. Grind berries thoroughly and allow the mixture to stand for 10 to 15 minutes. After blueberries sink to the bottom, slowly pour out ¼ of the pulp. Add more water and repeat the process until all of the pulp is gone. Remove seeds and dry them on a paper towel. Begin working with seeds in January or February.

Plant the seeds in moist peat moss. In about one month, the seeds should have germinated. Transplant the seedlings when they are 2 to 3 inches tall. Be careful because the seedlings and root system are delicate.


Citrus

Remove the seed and wash off any fruit residue. Put the seeds into a glass of water and discard any that immediately float to the surface as these will not be viable. Plant in moist soil or fold the seeds in a a damp paper towel, put them in a plastic bag and place them in a warm place.

Citrus seed have the unusual characteristic of producing nucellar seedlings which are vegetative (identical to the mother-tree) rather than genetic in origin. From each seed planted, three sprouts can emerge. Two will be fast growing sprouts and will produce a tree exactly like the one from which the fruit was obtained. The center, weak sprout, if it emerges, is the genetic or different-than-its-parent growth which should be removed. Many types of citrus give nucellar clones, and others can be expected to give seedlings in at least the same general type as the parent.

Seedling citrus trees grow tall and thorny and take a long time to produce fruit, although this is not always true.

Key lime produce fruit in 3 or 4 years from seed. Grapefruit can take 12 to 20 years. Most oranges 12-15. Other citris usually take less time than Grapefruit and oranges to produce fruit from seed.

A woman in South Carolina planted a seed from some sort of tangerine she had bought at a supermarket. In the winter of 1985 the temperatures in that area of the USA hit 0 degrees F. This tree was the only citrus tree to survive these cold temperatures with virtually no ill effects. It was propagated and named. The “Juanita Tangerine” produces delicious large 3.5″ sweet tangeines.

Here are some interesting hardy or hybrid citrus.

AMBERSWEET ORANGE Mandarin x Sweet Orange hybrid is one of the most cold hardy sweet oranges we have. This is a juice orange that ripens early and is super sweet. If you want fresh squeezed orange juice for breakfast, this is the one for you! Self fertile. Zones 8A-10.

Chinotto Orange 16 degrees F

CHINOTTO ORANGE As cold hardy as a satsuma and extremely ornamental. Beautiful, fine textured, small pointed leaves closely spaced on a dense dwarf tree. Spring brings millions of sweetly scented blossoms after which the trees turn a solid orange color with tight clusters of medium sized oranges. The fruit is very juicy and tangy. Makes a delicious orange juice. Used in Spain to make candied oranges. Self-fertile. Zones 8A-10.

GLEN NAVEL ORANGE Originating from Glen St. Mary’s Nursery in north Florida. Glen is one of the navels relied upon for commercial production. Bountiful crops of large, bright orange fruit with an open, non-protruding navel, ripening November to January. Self fertile. Zones 8A-10.

Red Navel Orange: Same as Navel orange but fruit inside is red and much sweeter!

Republic of Texas Orange (Citrus sinensis) The first citrus grown in Texas near Angleton. A truly cold hardy sweet orange dating back to the 1800’s. Produces a nice size, very sweet, juicy, highly flavorful fruit – excellent taste. Slightly seedy, A heavy producer. Average height is 15’ x 15’.

Satsuma Orange: a mandarin-orange cross, this sweet nearly seedless orange looks and peels like a tangerine. Slow growing tree reaching 10 to 12′

Changsha Mandarin Plant (extra hardiness) Changsha: Changshas come from the foothills of China and are very cold hardy once they have grown to maturity. Fruits are small, bright orange and somewhat seedy. The flavor is very sweet and is very good as a juicer. Hardy to 8 F

Juanita Tangerine – (Citrus reticulata) Sweet, tasty tangerine. Juanita tangerine was grown from a seed planted by the family of Juanita Barrineau of Barrineau, SC. The fruit and tree resemble Ponkan tangerine but has proven to be more cold hardy. Mature plants have withstood a low of 13° F. and reportedly lower.

Ten Degree Tangerine: The Ten Degree tangerine certainly lives up to its name. My tree has never been exposed to 10 F but has sailed thru a night of 13 F with flying colors. Tree is very thorny but produces good crops of tangerines with a somewhat sweet/tart flavor. The ten degree tangerine was developed in Texas and has Yuzu and some other mandarins in its bloodline.

Browns Select Satsuma: Browns Select satsuma is probably my favorite of all the satsumas.. Flesh is melting and sweet. The trees bear great crops.

Kimbrough Satsuma: The kimbrough satsuma has its origins in Louisiana. It was discovered after a killer freeze that destroyed much of Louisianas satsuma crop back in th early 1900’s. The kimbrough is believed to be slightly more cold hardy than other satsuma varieties. The tree in this picture has survived single digits for brief periods of time. Hardy to around 12 F

Miho Satsuma is extremely cold hardy. It has a fruit that is sweet and seedless. Miho Satsuma ripens late September or early October.

Owari Satsuma: McKenzie Amos, grandson of Stan McKenzie enjoys picking some owari satsumas from a tree at the McKenzie’s patio. Owaris are sweet, seedless and zipper skinned. Trees are very cold hardy down to around 12 F. Trees bear good crops of medium sized fruits beginning around the 3rd year from planting.

Hirado Butan Pummelo This is a pink fleshed fruit that is exceptionally sweet with no tartness like grapefruit. The fruit has very few seeds and is the size of a soccer ball.

Citrumelo: Citrumelo is a hybrid of the trifoliate orange and grapefruit. Trees are very vigourous growers and the fruit is very similar to commercial grapefruits. Trees have been reported to produce fruit as far north as Tennesee.

Bloomsweet Grapefruit: White fleshed fruit with yellow skin, easy to peel, very cold hardy. Full sun. Bloomsweet will grow quickly to reach an average mature height of 25 ft

Bloomsweet Grapefruit: as you can see from this picture.. the bloomsweet produces bountiful crops of large delicious grapefruits. Trees are very hardy and withstand temps down to around 15 F. Bloomsweet comes to us from Japan is called Citrus Kinkoji.

Bloomsweet Grapefruit This citrus is a cross between a pummelo & amp; a sour orange. It is a hefty yellow grapefruit, with thinner skin, very juicy, fairly sweet pale flesh. The unique flavor of grapefruit & amp; orange makes this the sweetest grapefruit with flavor that is not found in any other grapefruit. It is easy to peel & amp; segment, and ripens November/December. It has good moderate freeze tolerance.

Golden Grapefruit An outstanding tasting grapefruit that is very hard to find. This is an exceptional fruit for which we have been waiting to offer, for a long time.

Grapefruit, Golden – A very unique grapefruit with a sweet, juicy, golden-amber flesh. Golden Grapefruit is similar to Duncan grapefruit, because of it’s high quality, and the fact that both are seedy. Most find that the taste of either makes dealing with the seed worth the extra effort.

Grapefruit, Marsh – Evergreen citrus bearing large, sweet, white fleshed grapefruit, that ripen in November. Marsh Grapefruit is one of the more cold hardy grapefruit, but, like all citrus, must be protected during severe freezes, especially when young. Hardy to about 20° F.

Grapefruit, Pink (Croxton) – Evergreen citrus bearing large, sweet, pink fleshed grapefruit, that ripen in November. This is a clone of pink grapefruit from a fruiting seedling that has survived temperatures well below 20° F.

Grapefruit, Sanbokan (Citrus sulcata) – (Sometimes referred to as Sanbokan Lemon.) Evergreen citrus growing 10-15‘ tall. Bears yellow, tangerine like fruits, with a short neck, and a unique, sweet lemon taste. Makes an interesting, edible landscape plant where hardy. I also have one that has been doing well as a container plant. Hardy to around 15 degrees F.

Calamondin: This is a cold tolerant mandarin/ kumquat cross, widely grown in Asia, fruit is tangy and resembles a small slightly flattened orange. Rind is sweet, pulp is seedy and used for flavoring. Used in making marmalades, this tree is most decorative and can survive in a small pot for years. Hardy to 16 degrees F

Limequat

Nippon Orangequat: Nippon orangequat is a hybrid of the satsuma mandarin orange and kumquat. Trees are very cold hardy and are prolific bearers. The interior is an intense orange color. The fruits have a sweet orange taste and ripen in late fall. Like it’s kumquat parent, the skin is edible and the leaves are slender and pointed. Hardy to around 10 F

Thomasville Citrangequat: The Thomasville citrangequat is one of the early attempts by citrus researchers to produce a cold hardy citrus tree with good fruit. Trees can grow to 15 feet and are very cold hardy. Thomasvilles are very prolific bearers and the immature fruits make a great lime substitute. Fruit ripens in late fall and has a kumquat/orange flavor. The tree is named for Thomasville, Georgia where it first fruited. Hardy to around 5 F once established.

Yuzuquat (Citrus ichangensis x reticulata) A hybrid between Yuzu Lemon and Nagami kumquat. Sour lemon-like fruit that is about 2/3 the size of a commercial lemon. The fruit is seedy, but with great lemon flavor. Makes a delicious marmalade. Good container plant with dark green foliage and showy yellow fruit. Full sun. Hardy to about 10° F.

Meiwa (Sweet Kumquat) Superior variety with heavy yields that are sweet and have few seeds. This nearly thornless kumquat has round fruit and is considered the best for eating. Produces sweet fruit in cool costal climates. Easy to grow. Once dormant, the trees withstand temps down to to 15° F.

Nagami Kumquat 16 degrees F

Rangpur Lime 15 degrees F Lime, Key – Hardy to 30° F.

Red Lime 10 degrees F

Harvey lemon is reported to be somewhat cold resistant and was a suvivor of some of the deep freezes that struck Florida in the 60’s and 70’s

HARVEY LEMON Very much like its cousin, Eureka, but more cold hardy, having survived some of the disastrous deep freezes in Florida during the ’60’s and ’70’s. With its typical lemon shape and tart, juicy true lemon flavor, it most resembles the lemons you buy in the grocery store. Self fertile. Zones 8A-10.

Ichang Lemon 10 degrees F

Meyer Lemon: Tends to be ever bearing, most popular, sweet fruit ripens summer, smooth skin, hardy to about 20° F., dwarf habit, easy to grow. Height: 10 – 12′.

Tiwanica Lemon 10 degrees F

Taichang lemon: The Taichang is a cross between the Ichang lemon and the Taiwanica lemon… Both parents are extremely cold tolerant and the offspring is very cold hardy as well. The golf ball sized lemons sometimes grow in clusters on a medium sized tree. The taichang lemon tree has very long dark green leaves that reminds me of a kumquat tree. Fruit is a nice blend of sweet/tart flavors and the trees bear prolific crops. Hardy to around 15 F.

Taiwanica lemon

Yuzu Lemon 12 degrees F

Bitter Lemon: also known as the trifoliate orangeand poncirrus . Anyone wanting to grow citrus north of zone 7 should give bitter lemon a try. Trees are native of Asia and are extremely cold hardy. It has been reported that the bitter lemon tree will survive as far north as New England. Fruits are golf ball sized and the trees are decidious. Hardy to around – 5F

Ujukitsu Citrus (Citrus ujukitsu)It ripens to a bright yellow with an interesting pear-shaped form that’s quite large, often bigger than a softball. A cross between an orange and a lemon, the fruit is amazingly sweet and juicy with a thick rind that peels easily. The plant grows slower than most citrus trees. Height: 20′

Yuzu Lemonis a cold hardy citrus from the highlands of Japan. Yuzu has been reported to survive temperatures into the low teens. Fruit has a complex flavor of lemon/lime/grapefruit and is useful as an ingredient in seafood, sherbets, cosmetics and more.


Currants and Gooseberries

The seeds require three to four months of stratification, and will bear at two to three years.


Cherimoya

Place fresh seeds in ziplock baggies with moistened peat moss. Seal the bag, lay it in a warm place. They sprout in 2-3 weeks. Cherimoyas grown from seed grow to be very close to the parent tree and always produce excellent quality fruit. They take 5-7 years to fruit. Cherimoya trees can get quite large.

Cherimoya is pollen compatable with Sugar Apple. Atemoya is a cross between Cherimoya and Sugar Apple.

Cerimoya.com – You can buy fruit of different varieties of Cherimoya here.

Good Land Organics – Growers and suppliers of exotic fruit ~ cherimoya, finger limes, dragon fruit, passion fruit.


Dates

Simply remove the fruit and felshy material, soak them for 2 days (changing water is not needed) and plant in regualr potting mix. Soil temp of about 85 will really get them going. They do not germinate well at cool temps. You will get half males and half females. You also don’t need to worry about “fresh” seeds.

Planting date seeds from dates bought at a grocery store: You can buy fresh dates that are yellow on the outside and have not been processed in any way. You can find them in most grocery stores. Medjool (Phoenix Dachy) Dates from the fruit section at the Supermarket will grow.


Blue Elderberry (Sambucus caerulea)

Found from British Columbia down to Baja California.

Black Elderberries (Sambucus nigra) are mostly found east of the Rockies but are occasionally found in the Cascades.

The leaves, green fruits and stems of members of this genus are poisonous. Avoid raw berries and Red Elderberry, Sambucus racemosa, whether cooked or raw.

In the fall the 15-20’ tall bush is covered with large clusters of small powder blue berries that are prized for cooking, jelly and wine. Self fertile. Zones 5-9.

Begin searching for the elderberry in the early summer when the shrubs begin to flower and are easier to identify. Commonly occurring near creeks and in open grasslands, this is an adaptable, easy-to-grow plant. Blue Elderberry prefers a sunny location along the forest edge. It thrives on moist soils.

This fast-growing plant can reach up to 10 feet tall in just three years. Left to itself, it will become a multi-trunked shrub. Elderberries grow to a height of about six to 16 feet, depending on the growing conditions. Each bush puts up many canes that flower and fruit, primarily in their second and third years.

Mulch your newly planted elderberry shrubs with bark or wood chips and weed them by hand the first year or two, taking care not to damage their shallow roots. They need to be watered until they are well established, but they also require good drainage. Once they’re established, they’ll grow dense enough to discourage weeds. The plant is relatively pest-free, and other than pruning, requires little labor. Prune your elderberry shrub after the second year of growth, removing all weak and dead canes during the early spring. After three years of growth, remove the oldest canes as they will no longer yield heavily.

It grows best in sun. It is drought tolerant, but holds its leaves longer and looks better with moderate summer irrigation. It is best planted in an area with enough space to fill out. Leave at least 6 feet between plants. Hard pruning each winter will keep Blue Elderberry manageable and attractive. In good soil and with good drainage and attention to pruning and watering, elderberry will grow to form a dense thicket, with gracefully arching branches and long slender, dark green compound leaves.

The birds will love your Elderberries. If you want to beat the birds to the berries, cover the plants with lightweight netting when the berries begin to form in the late summer.

Elderberry cuttings are super easy to root making this the preferred propagation technique. They can be rooted directly where you plan to plant them or several in a pot. Just cut pencil size pieces about 6 inches long and stick in the soil and keep soil moist (keep in light shade).

Collect cuttings in late fall (October and December) for best results. Semi-hardwood cuttings root readily. Blue Elderberry can also be propagated from softwood cuttings in the spring or from winter hardwood, and cuttings can be successfully taken all year. It roots quickly and vigorously. One source said it can be propagated from new growth cuttings if they have a “heel” of last year’s woody growth.

You can also pull up any shoots around the parent plant, wrap the roots in wet newspaper and take them home with you. Plant in the sun and watch them spread.

Blue elderberry grows easily from seed that has been cold-stratified for three months. You can also plant fresh seeds directly in the soil or in pots outside. Collect fruit when it ripens between August and September. Remove seeds from fresh, ripe elderberries by placing them into a food processor with 1/4 cup of water. Turn the food processor on for three to four seconds at a time until the berries resemble pulp.

Pour the elderberry pulp into a clean, large bowl and add water. Wait two minutes, and then pour off the pulp that floats to the surface of the water. Add more water and wait two more minutes for the pulp to rise again. Pour the excess off again and repeat for as many times as it takes until you see clean elderberry seeds sitting on the bottom of the bowl.

Lay newspaper pages on a flat surface. Drain the water from the clean elderberry seeds and spread them out on the newspaper. Allow the seeds to dry for a day or two.

To plant the seeds, place them directly on the surface of the soil. Cover the seeds with a half-inch layer of sawdust mulch, sand, or soil. Seeds should start coming up in April but may take close to a year to sprout. To help speed up germination, you can soak the seeds for 15 minutes in sulpheric acid before planting.

Jam, jelly, pies, syrup, schnapps, brandy and wine can be made from blue elderberries. Syrup is, as can you imagine, is a beautiful rich color, incredibly delicious on home made pancakes, vanilla ice cream, or in elderberry cream pie!

The berries make an outstanding wine. When blue elderberries are picked at perfect ripeness, crushed, soaked, and fermented, the result is like some of the “huskier, more brooding” red grape wines like Mourvedre and Petit Verdot. Try a flavorful combination of Elderberry and Blackberry wine by using 2 gallons Elderberries and 1 gallon Blackberries.

Elderberry juice taken with peppermint will heal pneumonia, but won’t get the fluid out of the lungs. Need an expectorant for that. It merely kills the bacteria.


Figs

Hardy varaties

Hardy down to 10 F:

•Florea
•Gino
•English Brown Turkey (aka Eastern Brown Turkey)
•Sweet Georg
•Adriana
•Tiny Celeste
•UCD Celeste
•143-36
•Paradiso White (Gene Hosey strain)
•Archipel
•Lindhurst Wht
•Jurupa

143-36: very, very hardy

Alma:

Adriana: very, very hardy

Archipel: very, very hardy

Atreano: Delicious and had such a good fig flavor. Wonderfully sweet, golden-yellow figs. A good short-season fig,

Bayernfeige Violetta: from old Bavaria, Germany.

Black Genoa:

Black Bethlehem:

Black Jack: large and long and taste very sweet. The inside flesh is strawberry red. Black Jack Figs experience ripeness a bit early. They can start the ripening from June and last until September.

Black Marseilles:

Blue Celeste: very, very hardy, Fruits taste best notch and is hardy too.

Bronze Paradiso:

Brooklyn White: very, very hardy

Brown Trk #2:

Carrapipe Negra:

Celeste: 4*F. Celestes are good too but there are so many different strains out there.

Celestial: excellent quality, high yields and cold tolerance. This variety has long been grown in areas that dip into the single digits from time to time. The Celestial Fig Tree is a small to medium-sized violet to purplish-brown with white flesh, shading to rose at the center. It is firm, juicy, and one of the sweetest of all figs. Sometimes referred to as the Sugar Fig Tree.

Chios AKA Anoukounis Black (greek variety)

Danny’s Delite:

Dark Portuguese:

Don Fortissi Black:

Excell:

Fracazzano Bianco:

Florea: very, very hardy

Gentile: white

Gino: very, very hardy, has a small eye and is rain tolerant. a very good tasting fig

Green Ischia:

Goncha de Oro (Morle source) – Sweet small yellow figs, ripen early

Hanc Mathies English Brown Turkey: very, very hardy

Hardy Chicago Fig:

Hardy Hartford is his most cold hardy variety, surviving -4 Fahrenheit with no winter protection.

Henry Brown Fig:

Italian Honey:

Jurupa: very, very hardy

Kathleen’s Black:

LaRadek’s English Brown Turkey

Late Black:

Lattarulla:

Lindhurst White: very, very hardy

LSU Gold:

Malta Black:

Marseilles vs Black: very, very hardy, Has a berry like flavor.

Maryland Brown Turkey: resisted to 8* F.

Mildenhall:

MBVS is a must have fig

Negretta: It is a very productive variety. It produces a heavy crop over a short period. The figs are very tasty, among the best tasting figs in my collection. Fruit is round with a very short neck. It also has a closed eye.

Negronne Fig aka – Violette de Bordeaux, Petite Negri
Said by some to be the best flavoured fig of them all. Small to medium-sized, purplish-black figs have a dark-red interior. Flavour is sweet, fine-grained and very rich – one of our favourites. We have found Negronne to be fairly hardy and productive for us on Denman Island. The tree grows naturally small, making it ideal as a container tree. If you have unused space in your cold frame or greenhouse, try this fig.

Nordland Bergfeige: Hardy to 10 degrees F. A sweet, reddish very rare, cold hardy variety fig from Switzerland. Excellent for cold climate.

Nordland Fig

Natalina Fig – abundant 1″ very sweet purple fruit, very reliable annual bearing, does very well in pot culture, a favorite for us/

Pananas purple:

Paradiso

Paradiso White (Gene Hosey strain) very, very hardy

Persian white: Large yellow fig red interior. Very good flavor. Ripens early for a large fig.

Ronde de Bordeaux: -11 degrees Fahrenheit

Sal (Gene strain): very, very hardy

Sal’s Corleone: very, very hardy

Sal’s EL (AKA Gene’s Sal): Very intense purple. cold hardy, has good sweetness, and very importantly has a closed eye which helps in humid climates. figs are on the small side.

Scott’s Yellow – It has also proven to be quite hardy

Stella: we found this wonderful fig in a Southeast Portland neighborhood. Stella was brought here many years ago by an Italian sailor and is now cultivated and prized by his wife. Stella caught our attention with its large size, sweet, striking, purplish-red flesh, and its ability to ripen in our cooler climate.

Sweet Georg: very, very hardy

Takoma Violet: From a local German lady, It’s a very good fig for looks, flavor, early ripening and cold hardiness. Fruit is small. Hardy to 5 degrees F

Tiny Celeste: very, very hardy

UCD Celeste: very, very hardy

Valle Negra: below zero-7

VDB:

Violette de Bordeaux: A particularly hardy variety. Dating from around 1680, itwas found to thrive in Versailles gardens during the cold winter months. The small, purple black figs have a marvellous perfume and a lovely sweet flavour. Produces two crops per year, and if protected over winter the second crop will ripen early during the following summer.

Violetta: very, very hardy

Violtta Bayernfeige:

Weeping fig:

White genoa (Belleclare source) late ripener, medium size green ripening exterior, thicker skin than most, blood red interior


Guava

Guava trees may be propagated by seed however they do not come true from seed and fruit production may not begin for 3 to 8 years.


Grapes

From Lon Rombough:
How to grow grape seeds? Got a refrigerator? Got a couple spoonfuls of moist peat moss? A small plastic bag? All you need then is the seed and you can start. Seed fresh from the grape is best and will give a higher germination rate. Put it in the peat moss in a plastic bag and put it in the refrigerator. After three months the seed has had enough cold to have stratified it – removed the built-in inhibitors that keep it from sprouting.
In Nature, it has to have those inhibitors removed by going through the winter, which insures it won’t grow until the weather is good. Plant your seed in a small pot, at least two by two inches (5 cm x 5 cm) in a warm, sunny window. Keep it moist but not too moist, and with luck, the seed should sprout in a month or less.
After the plant has at least six true leaves, and frost danger is over, the little vine can be planted out in a garden spot to grow for the summer before transplanting it to it’s final location when it is dormant in the fall. With care, the new vine may be able to bear crop in two to seven years from the time you plant it in it’s permanent location. The length of time depends on the parent, and the conditions you give the vine.


Huckleberry

Huckleberry seeds can easily be grown from seed and begin flowering 2 to 5 years after sowing.

Extract the seeds by squashing ripe berries through a fine mesh kitchen strainer into a pan or dish tub. Spray or pour water through the pulp to wash the seeds through the strainer. The seeds are tiny and pass through most strainers readily. Strain off the skins and debris.

Next, using two drinking glasses, pour the water and seeds from one glass to the other. After each transfer, allow the seeds to settle for several seconds, then pour off the dirty water, pulp, and floating seeds, which are not viable. Add more clean water and repeat until all that remains are the heavy seeds at the bottom of the glass.

Freshly extracted seeds may be planted immediately. To save seeds for later planting, dry them at room temperature. Seal the seeds inside a small, airtight plastic bag and store them in a refrigerator at about 35oF (do not freeze them). Seeds extracted and stored this way remain viable for at least 7 years.

Sowing seeds. Huckleberry seeds do not require any pretreatment before sowing. To maximize growth and survival during the first year, sow your seeds about the first of January and grow them indoors or in a greenhouse.


Jujube

Very narrow single trunk tree. A compact grower ideal for small yards, tight spaces, corner spots. Fruit size large to 3″ long! Perfect snack size for kids and not messy to eat with only one seed per fruit.


Kiwi

Remove the seeds and clean them. Let them dry for two days at room tenperature. Fill a seal-able plastic bag with moist vermiculite. Add the dried kiwi seeds, seal the bag and place it in the bottom of a refrigerator for a minimum of four months.

You will get both male and female plants from your seedlings. Select 4 or 5 females for each male. Male and female vines are required for successful pollination. If you have the space, each kiwi plant should be spaced 10 feet apart, in order for the plants to produce kiwi fruits in three to four years. However, should space be of a premium, you can probably get away with 5 feet, but you will need to spend more time making sure each plant is fed and watered adequately and pruned to make the most of the available light.


Loquat

The seed must be planted as soon as possible after extraction from the fruit, viability drops off very steeply in storage. The moisture level is fairly crucial, too much either way meets with failure. The tree can get to 40 feet with a trunk about a foot in diameter and limbs 15 feet or more radius from the trunk.


Mango


Mayhaw

Mayhaws (Crataegus aestivalis, C. rufula, or C. opaca) are a native fruit tree which grow primarily in the wetlands of the southern United States and are very common south of the 1,000 hour chill line. The heaviest concentrations of native mayhaw trees are found in Grant Parish, Louisiana , near Winnie, Texas and in the Pearl River swamps of Mississippi. Commercial mayhaw orchards are found as far North as the Louisiana and Arkansas state line.

They are commonly used to make a sweet jelly. All varieties taste the same — tart. Ripens during the late April and early May in East Texas. They have beautiful white blossoms in the Spring and are desirable as ornamentals as well as for wildlife cover and forage.

The tree will actually survive 20 degrees below zero, but the primary problem is that the mayhaw is subject to blooming very early in the Spring and many times the blooms are lost due to frosts and freezes. Trees that have this characteristic are referred to as being ” low chill trees “.

Although some cultivars have a low chilling requirement and bloom early, other cultivars should be adapted to the piedmont of the southeast. C. aestivalis cultivars may bloom a few days later than C. opaca cultivars and may be better choices further north. Bloom occurs over an extended period of time and the fruit are reported to be fairly frost hardy once past the bloom period. There are reports of mayhaws fruiting after -13°F and two year old trees survived -25°F without damage.

Mayhaws can be propagated by the seed of ripe fruits, by rooted cuttings, or by grafting the mayhaw onto a rootstock. Cuttings may be rooted under mist systems or in a humidity chamber in the summer.

Mayhaw seeds require overwintering or cold stratification before germination occurs. Store the seeds in moist sphagnum moss inside the refrigerator for spring planting. Mayhaws do not come true from seed. The things to look for in a seedling are late blooming, large fruit, Quince rust free plants and a tree that drops all of it’s fruit over a short period of time.

The grafted tree will usually bear some fruit within the first two years after grafting. The seedling tree usually takes about five years to begin bearing. Although tolerant of wet, very acid soils, better growth has been observed when mayhaws are planted on well drained, slightly acid soils. It grows as a large shrub or smallish tree, reaching 30 feet in height at maturity.

There are several ways that the fruit can be removed from the trees. Some growers harvest by placing fabric under the trees and shaking the trees, much like the harvest of pecans. Some trees have fruit that falls with strong winds and other selections have fruit that is a little more difficult to remove. Some trees drop their fruit over an extended period of time requiring more trips to the orchard to harvest. One of the preferable qualities is a tree that drops all of it’s fruit over a short period of time.

There are now several nurseries that are producing these quality trees in several areas. One nursery of Billy Craft in Woodworth, Louisiana. Billy, along with Elmer Langston of Pollack, Louisiana and Glen Melcher of Tioga, Louisiana are the authors of a fine book entitled Mayhaws A guide to orchard production and propagation. These men are envolved in a very intense research program to develop trees for amateur and commercial growers.

Lousiana Mayhaw Association


Medlar

Medlar seed fruits 3 years after planting. Medlar is a striking ornamental tree.


Passion Fruit

Soak the seeds for twenty-four hours in warm water and keep them in a warm place to break dormancy. If you don’t break dormancy, they can take up to 8 months to germinate. The acidity of the fruit helps break the dormancy. You can also soak them for a few days in their own juice. If you only have the seeds, buy a pack of juice and soak the seed for several days before planting. Warmer temperature is needed for the seeds to sprout well. Put a tall stake in the pot for them to climb on.

Here is another method. First, cut open a fresh fruit. Scoop out the flesh and put it through a mesh strainer to extract the extremely fragrant juice and drain it with water. What you end up with is just the seed and their jelly sack attached. Transfer the seed into a pot five inch pot with seed starter soil or any soil will do just fine. Make a hole about two inches deep and throw them all in. They do better when they are together. The jelly sacks should rot in about a week and then you should expect to the sprout in about a month.

Giant Granadilla is sweeter than the regular passion fruit, and you can eat the rind.


Papaya

AlohaSeed – buy papaya seeds


Pawpaw

Keep the seeds moist and cool from the time they are removed from the fruit, but not very damp or wet or they will rot. Stratify in slightly moist peat moss for at least 120 days. Keep them in the 32 – 36F range. Germinate at 80F in a baggie in the moist peat moss.


Persimmon

There are two kinds of Persimmons, the native American persimmon and Asian persimmons. American persimmons are astringent and need to soften before eating. Asian persimmons have both astringent and non-astringent varieties. Asian persimmons also have varieties that are the astringent type unless seeded, and then they are non-astringent.

Keep the seeds moist and cool from the time they are removed from the fruit, but not very damp or wet or they will rot. Stratify in slightly moist peat moss for at least 120 days. Keep them in the 32 – 36F range. Germinate at 80F in a baggie in the moist peat moss. You will get both male and female plants, if you plant American persimmons.

Many people save seeds from year-to-year in the freezer after placing them in air-tight bags and freeze containers. My source didn’t say if they need to be wet or dry before freezing.

The native persimmon is routinely used for rootstock because they are nematode resistant.


Pomegranate


Qince

Quince seeds need the same treatment as apples and pears before planting. put them between moist folded paper towels and put them in the refrigerator for three months.

As a tree it matures to about 10 feet in height. Fire blight can be a problem with quince. Prune effected branches about an inch into live wood and remove from your property or burn as soon as possible to reduce potential spread.


Saskatoon

There are MANY juneberries of varies species in the wild and in nurseries that are excellent — nearly as good as blueberries, but different enough to stand on their own. They would seem the clear winner for regions where growing blueberries is a pain or not possible. They make a much better pie than blueberries.

These are also broken up into three general categories: grandiflora (primarily for color but have good edible fruit as well), canadensis (tend to be larger, more colorful, and are also have good flaovored fruit), and alnifolia (tend to be shorter and have higher fruit quality with better flavor).

Alnifolia is the most common sask berry for production, and its native range is the rockies, down to california, all the way east to the mississippi. They stick to the mountains in the warmer places in the states, and there are a few variations on the species, depeding where they are.

The one most east coasters see is A. arborea or A. canadiansis. Both can reach tree like dementions.

Allegheny Serviceberies (A. laevis) and Northern Juneberries (A. gaspensis) Allegheny should grow into a small tree.

Amelanchier humilis: Low serviceberry
Native Sun/part shade Z: 3-8 Family: Rosaceae
Low serviceberry is native to most states north of Arkansas & to the east of Missouri. A stoloniferus variety which produces tasty edible fruits which birds love.

Amelanchier lamarckii: Lamarck serviceberry
Lamarck serviceberry is thought to be a natural hybrid but botanists are not sure of the parentage.

Amelanchier stolonifera: Running serviceberry
This serviceberry reaches 4-5 feet tall & has a similar spread. All serviceberries are wonderful bird food & most make excellent people food too! Grows in most soils, including clay but doesn’t like a limey soil.

One interesting fact about saskatoon is the ability to cross species readily, as well as the massive amount of diversity in seedlings.

All of the saskatoon cultivars grown today are selections found in nature, in some cases several decades ago, and not from any deliberate breeding program. An observant fruit enthusiast might have noticed something superior in a native stand of saskatoon plants and collected seed from those plants.

Sow clean seeds in fall; germination will occur the following spring or Stratisfy Saskatoon seeds in damp sand for 4 months in the refrigerator.

It is important to monitor your soil moisture for this first year successfully. To ensure your seedlings root into your soil, high phosphate fertilizers are beneficial. You will probably see little top growth your first year. The plant does most of it’s work underground. By fall, you should see small shoots at the soil line as the plant prepares for next season’s growth. Ensure that they go into winter wet. Check for Root Aphids on August 1st. If found, treat accordingly.

You should see lots of growth the second year. Those little shoots you saw last fall should develop into a small multi-branched plant 1 to 2 feet tall. You could start applying light mulches to ensure even soil moisture and weed suppression. You should again be monitoring the Saskatoons for Root Aphids August 1st and treating if required. Root Aphids can be a problem but are easily controlled and once the plant is 4 years old control will no longer be necessary.

You should see significant growth the third year; The bush should double in size yielding a three foot, well-branched little shrub by fall. You should start to see suckers developing at the base of the plant which you should encourage. You could harvest a handful or two of fruit from your bushes this year. Your seedlings will reach full maturity in their eigeth year.


Vegetables

Try planting two different varietes of plants such as Melon, Squash, Potatos, or even Sorghum together and save the seeds, or do your own hand pollinations. Tomatoes and beans don’t usually cross polinate naturally, so you would need to do hand pollination to get a new variety. My favorite tomato named Salisaw Cafe is very small, very early, very reliable and very good tasting. Everyone I gave them to loved them, and they asked for more the next year. That might be a great tomato to use for breeding a new variety. A lot of research would be needed to learn how to hand pollinate and then stabalize your new variety.

Also, you can look for variations in your open pollinated seeds.

My mom used to throw old tomatos in her flower bed and there were many volunteers. They were hybrids, so there was a lot of variation in the fruit. She gave me a couple of them, and one of them was the best tomato I have ever eaten. I didn’t know how to save the seeds. I thought about just scraping some of the seeds onto a piece of paper, but didn’t. Now I regret not saving the seeds.

I planted some bean seeds from a natural cross and got two new varieties, although they weren’t completely stabilized. Unfortunately I wasn’t able to keep growing them, and they were lost. If you develoup a new variety of fruit or vegetable, you might consider joining an orginazition such as Seed Savers Exchange to help preserve your new creation.


Web Page by KEN PRIDDY

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2 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Stevene
    Apr 09, 2013 @ 19:09:09

    Cool site! What a great idea. Re: the King apple seedling experiment section. I ran across this blog trying to find out if King David is a triploid, coincidentally, I have just posted an article on pollinating and breeding apples on a homescale that makes pretty much the same argument about the better than we are told chances of coming up with good apples when we grow them from seed. I think that if you actually pollinate the apples crossing two with outstanding characteristics, the odds are going to be even better, possibly much better. Here is a link to the article. it is in three parts http://turkeysong.wordpress.com/2013/04/03/apple-breeding-part-1-everyone-knows-you-cant-do-it-right/

    Reply

  2. Stevene
    Apr 09, 2013 @ 19:36:21

    Also, I’ve been trying to cross other apples with suntan, a triploid, and have had poor luck. I usually get few seeds and only one has sprouted. Unfortunately, it was munched by something in the greenhouse before it even made any leaves. I plan to try again this year.

    Reply

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